Updated: Oct 28, 2021
Our manuscript is accepted for publication and published 10/27/21. We used the counterfactual framework with doubly robust estimators and conducted a causal inference study. Both sexes' response to CRT is similar. Sex differences in HF substrate, treatment, and comorbidities explain sex disparities in CRT outcomes. This study illustrated the impact of paradoxical effects in regression analysis arising from conditioning on colliders or effect modifiers.