Resources & Equipment

The Laboratory is fully equipped for the recording and analysis of a variety of cardiac signals, including body surface potentials mapping, intracardiac electrograms, surface ECG, blood pressure signals, and more.

Body surface potentials mapping system

Body surface mapping system (Active Two, MK2, Biosemi, the Netherlands) with 128 electrodes records body surface potentials at 16,384 Hz sampling rate, bandwidth (~3dB) DC-3200 Hz; digitalization 24 bit, 4th order Delta-Sigma modulator with 64X oversampling, one converter per channel.

The BioSemi ActiveTwo (BioSemi B.V, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) measurement system is designed to measure potential differences on the human body surface. For body surface mapping applications, BioSemi produces a unique version of the active electrode. In cooperation with the University of Auckland, New Zealand, Dept. of Engineering Science, flexible rubber strips with integrated carbon electrodes and a preamplifier were developed.

Application time for this electrode system is short. Preparation: attach adhesive rings and fill with gel: approx. 20 minutes. - Application: stick the strips to the subject: approx. 5 minutes. - Cleaning: remove adhesive rings and clean out gel with soapy water: approx. 20 minutes.


Perez-Alday EA, Thomas JA, Kabir M, Sedaghat G, Rogovoy N, van Dam E, van Dam P, Woodward W, Fuss C, Ferencik M, Tereshchenko LG. Torso geometry reconstruction and body surface electrode localization using three-dimensional photography. J Electrocardiol. 2018 Jan - Feb;51(1):60-67. doi: 10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2017.08.035. Epub 2017 Sep 1. PubMed PMID: 29032808; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5776048.

Haq KT, Rogovoy NM, Thomas JA, Hamilton C, Lutz KJ, Wirth A, Bender AB, German DM, Przybylowicz R, van Dam P, Dewland TA, Dalouk K, Stecker E, Nazer B, Jessel PM, MacMurdy KS, Zarraga IGE, Beitinjaneh B, Henrikson CA, Raitt M, Fuss C, Ferencik M, Tereshchenko LG. Adaptive Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Effect on Electrical Dyssynchrony (aCRT-ELSYNC): A randomized controlled trial. Heart Rhythm O2. 2021 Aug;2(4):374-381. doi: 10.1016/j.hroo.2021.06.006. eCollection 2021 Aug. PubMed PMID: 34430943; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC8369305.

Perez-Alday EA, Haq KT, German DM, Hamilton C, Johnson K, Phan F, Rogovoy NM, Yang K, Wirth A, Thomas JA, Dalouk K, Fuss C, Ferencik M, Heitner S, Tereshchenko LG. Mechanisms of Arrhythmogenicity in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Insight From Non-invasive Electrocardiographic Imaging. Front Physiol. 2020;11:344. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2020.00344. eCollection 2020. PubMed PMID: 32390862; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7194131.

Non-invasive continuous recording of blood pressure digital signal

CNAP® Monitor 500 "HD"(CNSystems Medizintechnik AG, Austria) is available for continuous non-invasive recording of the blood pressure digital signal.


Kabir et al. Assessment of Joint Interactions between Respiration and Baroreflex Activity using Joint Symbolic Dynamics in Heart Failure Patients. Computing in cardiology. 2015; 42:809-812.

Holter ECG monitoring

High resolution 1000Hz 12-leads Holter monitor H12 (Mortara Instruments, USA) is available for recording of ECG during 48 hours, at rest and during the 6-min walk test.​

Intracardiac Electrograms Recording

Labview digitizer NI DAQs (NI USB-9215A) is available for digitizing of analog signal output. Custom Labview software and NI DAQs are available for recording of near-field and far-field intracardiac electrograms via ICD device programmers.

The Laboratory is fully equipped and prepared to record a digital signal using customized NI high-resolution digitizers. The signal from any clinical devices, including invasive pressure monitors, intracardiac recordings in the Clinical EP Lab and cardiovascular care units could be recorded and stored using the highly efficient equipment.


Kabir et al. High atrioventricular phase index on near-field intracardiac electrogram is associated with risk of ventricular arrhythmia. Journal of electrocardiology. 2015; 48(6):1027-31.

Kim et al. Mechanical alternans is associated with mortality in acute hospitalized heart failure: prospective mechanical alternans study (MAS). Circulation. Arrhythmia and electrophysiology. 2014; 7(2):259-66.

Long-term ECG monitoring

ECG patches (BioStamp Research Connect™, MC10, Inc) are available for continuous (14-30 days) recording of high resolution (1000 Hz) ECG and VCG signal.


Kabir et al. Optimal configuration of adhesive ECG patches suitable for long-term monitoring of a vectorcardiogram. Journal of electrocardiology. 2017; 50(3):342-348.

Resting 12-lead ECG

ECG MAC 5500 HD (GE Healthcare, Wauwatosa, WI, USA) is available for recording of the digital signal of orthogonal Frank XYZ ECG, and 12-lead ECG.


Thomas et al. Vectorcardiogram in athletes: The Sun Valley Ski Study .

Annals of noninvasive electrocardiology: 2018 :e12614.

Thomas et al. The utility of routine clinical 12-lead ECG in assessing eligibility for subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Computers in biology and medicine. 2018; 102:242-250.